Bakery Shortening Evaluation

High Oleic Soybean Shortening

Interesterified High Oleic Soybean Shortening 

PHO shortenings have been the preferred bakery shortening due to their stability, functionality, and availability; however, bakers are looking for alternatives as trans fat must be removed from the food supply as of June 2018. 

One alternative available to the food industry is interesterified (IE) shortening. Interesterification is a process during which fatty acids are rearranged within and among triglyceride molecules, and no trans fatty acids are formed. 

The following 12-month shelf life studies evaluated the oxidative stability, application review, and texture analysis of PHO alternatives - IE high oleic soybean and canola, IE conventional soybean and canola, PHO and palm bakery shortenings.
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All shortenings tested maintained a similar shelf life but IE high oleic soybean shortening showed the least amount of change in texture than even the standard PHO product.

Fatty Acid Composition Tested Products

White Cake Application

Finished white cakes were measured for dome peak and edge height as well as dome peak height to edge ratio. The results indicate that cakes made with IE high oleic soybean shortening were most similar to cakes made with industry standard PHO shortening. 

The cakes made with IE conventional and palm shortening showed the most difference in dome peak to edge ratio from the PHO shortening.

Sugar Cookies Application

In the cookie application test, baked sugar cookies made with PHO shortening alternatives were compared to cookies made with PHO shortening. The test results showed all shortenings produced a similar product to the PHO standard in cookie spread, height and weight. 

The biggest differences were with IE high oleic canola, IE conventional soybean and palm bakery shortenings, which produced less cookie height than the PHO standard. 
Average Height Finished Cookie
The results for spread, height, and weight were obtained by randomly selecting six cookies from each time interval and averaging the measurements obtained.  All shortening resulted in similar results to industry standard PHO. 

However, cookies made with IE high oleic soybean and conventional soybean shortenings had a more tender mouthfeel.
Average Spread Finished Cookie